Stay Hungry Stay Foolish

Com­men­ce­ment ad­dress de­li­ve­red by Steve Jobs, CEO of Ap­ple Com­pu­ter and of Pi­xar Ani­ma­tion Stu­dios, on June 12, 2005

I am ho­no­red to be with you to­day at your com­men­ce­ment from one of the fi­nest uni­ver­si­ties in the world. I ne­ver gra­dua­ted from col­lege. Truth be told, this is the clo­sest I’ve ever got­ten to a col­lege gra­dua­tion. To­day I want to tell you th­ree sto­ries from my life. That’s it. No big deal. Just th­ree stories.

THE FIRST STORY: CON­NEC­TING THE DOTS

The first story is about con­nec­ting the dots.

I drop­ped out of Reed Col­lege af­ter the first 6 mon­ths, but then stayed around as a drop-in for ano­ther 18 mon­ths or so be­fore I really quit. So why did I drop out?

It star­ted be­fore I was born. My bio­lo­gi­cal mo­ther was a young, un­wed col­lege gra­duate stu­dent, and she de­ci­ded to put me up for adop­tion. She felt very stron­gly that I should be adop­ted by col­lege gra­dua­tes, so eve­ry­thing was all set for me to be adop­ted at birth by a law­yer and his wife. Ex­cept that when I pop­ped out they de­ci­ded at the last mi­nute that they really wan­ted a girl. So my pa­rents, who were on a wai­ting list, got a call in the middle of the night asking: «We have an unex­pec­ted baby boy; do you want him?» They said: «Of course.» My bio­lo­gi­cal mo­ther la­ter found out that my mo­ther had ne­ver gra­dua­ted from col­lege and that my fa­ther had ne­ver gra­dua­ted from high school. She re­fu­sed to sign the fi­nal adop­tion pa­pers. She only re­len­ted a few mon­ths la­ter when my pa­rents pro­mi­sed that I would so­me­day go to college.

And 17 years la­ter I did go to col­lege. But I nai­vely chose a col­lege that was al­most as ex­pen­sive as Stan­ford, and all of my working-class pa­rents’ sa­vings were being spent on my col­lege tui­tion. Af­ter six mon­ths, I couldn’t see the va­lue in it. I had no idea what I wan­ted to do with my life and no idea how col­lege was going to help me fi­gure it out. And here I was spen­ding all of the mo­ney my pa­rents had sa­ved their en­tire life. So I de­ci­ded to drop out and trust that it would all work out OK. It was pretty scary at the time, but loo­king back it was one of the best de­ci­sions I ever made. The mi­nute I drop­ped out I could stop ta­king the re­qui­red clas­ses that didn’t in­te­rest me, and be­gin drop­ping in on the ones that loo­ked interesting.

It wasn’t all ro­man­tic. I didn’t have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends’ rooms, I re­tur­ned coke bot­tles for the 5¢ de­po­sits to buy food with, and I would walk the 7 mi­les across town every Sun­day night to get one good meal a week at the Hare Kri­shna tem­ple. I lo­ved it. And much of what I stum­bled into by fol­lo­wing my cu­rio­sity and in­tui­tion tur­ned out to be pri­ce­less la­ter on. Let me give you one example:

Reed Col­lege at that time of­fe­red pe­rhaps the best cal­li­gra­phy in­struc­tion in the coun­try. Th­rou­ghout the cam­pus every po­ster, every la­bel on every dra­wer, was beau­ti­fully hand cal­li­gra­phed. Be­cause I had drop­ped out and didn’t have to take the nor­mal clas­ses, I de­ci­ded to take a cal­li­gra­phy class to learn how to do this. I lear­ned about se­rif and san se­rif ty­pe­fa­ces, about va­ry­ing the amount of space bet­ween dif­fe­rent let­ter com­bi­na­tions, about what ma­kes great ty­po­gra­phy great. It was beau­ti­ful, hi­sto­ri­cal, ar­ti­sti­cally sub­tle in a way that science can’t cap­ture, and I found it fascinating.

None of this had even a hope of any prac­ti­cal ap­pli­ca­tion in my life. But ten years la­ter, when we were de­si­gning the first Ma­cin­tosh com­pu­ter, it all came back to me. And we de­si­gned it all into the Mac. It was the first com­pu­ter with beau­ti­ful ty­po­gra­phy. If I had ne­ver drop­ped in on that sin­gle course in col­lege, the Mac would have ne­ver had mul­ti­ple ty­pe­fa­ces or pro­por­tio­nally spa­ced fonts. And since Win­dows just co­pied the Mac, it’s li­kely that no per­so­nal com­pu­ter would have them. If I had ne­ver drop­ped out, I would have ne­ver drop­ped in on this cal­li­gra­phy class, and per­so­nal com­pu­ters might not have the won­der­ful ty­po­gra­phy that they do. Of course it was im­pos­si­ble to con­nect the dots loo­king for­ward when I was in col­lege. But it was very, very clear loo­king bac­k­wards ten years later.

Again, you can’t con­nect the dots loo­king for­ward; you can only con­nect them loo­king bac­k­wards. So you have to trust that the dots will so­me­how con­nect in your fu­ture. You have to trust in so­me­thing — your gut, de­stiny, life, karma, wha­te­ver. This ap­proach has ne­ver let me down, and it has made all the dif­fe­rence in my life.

THE SE­COND STORY: ABOUT LOVE AND LOSS

My se­cond story is about love and loss.

I was lucky — I found what I lo­ved to do early in life. Woz and I star­ted Ap­ple in my pa­rents ga­rage when I was 20. We wor­ked hard, and in 10 years Ap­ple had grown from just the two of us in a ga­rage into a $2 bil­lion com­pany with over 4000 em­ployees. We had just re­lea­sed our fi­nest crea­tion — the Ma­cin­tosh — a year ear­lier, and I had just tur­ned 30. And then I got fi­red. How can you get fi­red from a com­pany you star­ted? Well, as Ap­ple grew we hi­red so­meone who I thought was very ta­len­ted to run the com­pany with me, and for the first year or so things went well. But then our vi­sions of the fu­ture be­gan to di­verge and even­tually we had a fal­ling out. When we did, our Board of Di­rec­tors si­ded with him. So at 30 I was out. And very pu­bli­cly out. What had been the fo­cus of my en­tire adult life was gone, and it was devastating.

I really didn’t know what to do for a few mon­ths. I felt that I had let the pre­vious ge­ne­ra­tion of en­tre­pre­neurs down — that I had drop­ped the ba­ton as it was being pas­sed to me. I met with Da­vid Pac­kard and Bob Noyce and tried to apo­lo­gize for screwing up so badly. I was a very pu­blic fai­lure, and I even thought about run­ning away from the val­ley. But so­me­thing slo­wly be­gan to dawn on me — I still lo­ved what I did. The turn of events at Ap­ple had not chan­ged that one bit. I had been re­jec­ted, but I was still in love. And so I de­ci­ded to start over.

I didn’t see it then, but it tur­ned out that get­ting fi­red from Ap­ple was the best thing that could have ever hap­pe­ned to me. The hea­vi­ness of being suc­ces­sful was re­pla­ced by the light­ness of being a be­gin­ner again, less sure about eve­ry­thing. It freed me to en­ter one of the most crea­tive pe­riods of my life.

Du­ring the next five years, I star­ted a com­pany na­med NeXT, ano­ther com­pany na­med Pi­xar, and fell in love with an ama­zing wo­man who would be­come my wife. Pi­xar went on to create the worlds first com­pu­ter ani­ma­ted fea­ture film, Toy Story, and is now the most suc­ces­sful ani­ma­tion stu­dio in the world. In a re­mar­ka­ble turn of events, Ap­ple bought NeXT, I re­tur­ned to Ap­ple, and the tech­no­logy we de­ve­lo­ped at NeXT is at the heart of Apple’s cur­rent re­nais­sance. And Lau­rene and I have a won­der­ful fa­mily together.

I’m pretty sure none of this would have hap­pe­ned if I hadn’t been fi­red from Ap­ple. It was aw­ful ta­sting me­di­cine, but I guess the pa­tient nee­ded it. So­me­ti­mes life hits you in the head with a brick. Don’t lose faith. I’m con­vin­ced that the only thing that kept me going was that I lo­ved what I did. You’ve got to find what you love. And that is as true for your work as it is for your lo­vers. Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly sa­ti­sfied is to do what you be­lieve is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven’t found it yet, keep loo­king. Don’t set­tle. As with all mat­ters of the heart, you’ll know when you find it. And, like any great re­la­tion­ship, it just gets bet­ter and bet­ter as the years roll on. So keep loo­king un­til you find it. Don’t settle.

THE THIRD STORY: ABOUT DEATH

My third story is about death.

When I was 17, I read a quote that went so­me­thing like: «If you live each day as if it was your last, so­me­day you’ll most cer­tainly be right.» It made an im­pres­sion on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have loo­ked in the mir­ror every mor­ning and asked my­self: «If to­day were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do to­day?» And whe­ne­ver the an­swer has been «No» for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something.

Re­mem­be­ring that I’ll be dead soon is the most im­por­tant tool I’ve ever en­coun­te­red to help me make the big choi­ces in life. Be­cause al­most eve­ry­thing — all ex­ter­nal ex­pec­ta­tions, all pride, all fear of em­bar­rass­ment or fai­lure — these things just fall away in the face of death, lea­ving only what is truly im­por­tant. Re­mem­be­ring that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thin­king you have so­me­thing to lose. You are al­ready na­ked. There is no rea­son not to fol­low your heart.

About a year ago I was dia­gno­sed with can­cer. I had a scan at 7:30 in the mor­ning, and it clearly sho­wed a tu­mor on my pan­creas. I didn’t even know what a pan­creas was. The doc­tors told me this was al­most cer­tainly a type of can­cer that is in­cu­ra­ble, and that I should ex­pect to live no lon­ger than th­ree to six mon­ths. My doc­tor ad­vi­sed me to go home and get my af­fairs in or­der, which is doctor’s code for pre­pare to die. It means to try to tell your kids eve­ry­thing you thought you’d have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few mon­ths. It means to make sure eve­ry­thing is but­to­ned up so that it will be as easy as pos­si­ble for your fa­mily. It means to say your goodbyes.

I li­ved with that dia­gno­sis all day. La­ter that eve­ning I had a biopsy, where they stuck an en­do­scope down my th­roat, th­rough my sto­mach and into my in­te­sti­nes, put a needle into my pan­creas and got a few cells from the tu­mor. I was se­da­ted, but my wife, who was there, told me that when they viewed the cells un­der a mi­cro­scope the doc­tors star­ted cry­ing be­cause it tur­ned out to be a very rare form of pan­crea­tic can­cer that is cu­ra­ble with sur­gery. I had the sur­gery and I’m fine now.

This was the clo­sest I’ve been to fa­cing death, and I hope it’s the clo­sest I get for a few more de­ca­des. Ha­ving li­ved th­rough it, I can now say this to you with a bit more cer­tainty than when death was a use­ful but pu­rely in­tel­lec­tual concept:

No one wants to die. Even peo­ple who want to go to hea­ven don’t want to die to get there. And yet death is the de­sti­na­tion we all share. No one has ever esca­ped it. And that is as it should be, be­cause Death is very li­kely the sin­gle best in­ven­tion of Life. It is Life’s change agent. It clears out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new is you, but so­me­day not too long from now, you will gra­dually be­come the old and be clea­red away. Sorry to be so dra­ma­tic, but it is quite true.

Your time is li­mi­ted, so don’t wa­ste it li­ving so­meone else’s life. Don’t be trap­ped by dogma — which is li­ving with the re­sults of other people’s thin­king. Don’t let the noise of others’ opi­nions drown out your own in­ner voice. And most im­por­tant, have the cou­rage to fol­low your heart and in­tui­tion. They so­me­how al­ready know what you truly want to be­come. Eve­ry­thing else is secondary.

When I was young, there was an ama­zing pu­bli­ca­tion cal­led The Whole Earth Ca­ta­log, which was one of the bi­bles of my ge­ne­ra­tion. It was crea­ted by a fel­low na­med Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park, and he brought it to life with his poe­tic touch. This was in the late 1960’s, be­fore per­so­nal com­pu­ters and de­sk­top pu­bli­shing, so it was all made with ty­pew­ri­ters, scis­sors, and po­la­roid ca­me­ras. It was sort of like Goo­gle in pa­per­back form, 35 years be­fore Goo­gle came along: it was idea­li­stic, and over­flo­wing with neat tools and great notions.

Stewart and his team put out se­ve­ral is­sues of The Whole Earth Ca­ta­log, and then when it had run its course, they put out a fi­nal is­sue. It was the mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back co­ver of their fi­nal is­sue was a pho­to­graph of an early mor­ning coun­try road, the kind you might find your­self hitch­hi­king on if you were so ad­ven­tu­rous. Be­neath it were the words: «Stay Hun­gry. Stay Foo­lish.» It was their fa­rewell mes­sage as they si­gned off. Stay Hun­gry. Stay Foo­lish. And I have al­ways wi­shed that for my­self. And now, as you gra­duate to be­gin anew, I wish that for you.

Stay Hun­gry. Stay Foolish.

Thank you all very much.

[Fonte e co­py­right tra­du­zione ita­liana: L’Espresso, Roma. Tra­du­zione: A. Dini]

 

IL DI­SCORSO INAU­GU­RALE DI STEVE JOBS A STAN­FORD (ITALIANO)

Vo­glio rac­con­tarvi tre sto­rie della mia vita. Tutto qui, niente di ec­ce­zio­nale: solo tre storie.

LA PRIMA STO­RIA: UNIRE I PUNTINI

La prima sto­ria è su una cosa che io chiamo ‘unire i pun­tini’ di una vita. Quand’ero ra­gazzo, ho ab­ban­do­nato l’università, il Reed Col­lege, dopo il primo se­me­stre. Ho con­ti­nuato a se­guire al­cuni corsi in­for­mal­mente per un al­tro anno e mezzo, poi me né sono an­dato del tutto. Per­ché l’ho fatto? è ini­ziato tutto prima che na­scessi. La mia mamma bio­lo­gica era una gio­vane stu­den­tessa uni­ver­si­ta­ria non spo­sata e quando ri­mase in­cinta de­cise di darmi in ado­zione. Vo­leva as­so­lu­ta­mente che io fossi adot­tato da una cop­pia di lau­reati, e fece in modo che tutto fosse or­ga­niz­zato per farmi adot­tare sin dalla na­scita da un av­vo­cato e sua mo­glie. Però, quando ar­ri­vai io, que­sta cop­pia — all’ultimo mi­nuto — disse che vo­leva adot­tare una fem­mina. Così, quelli che poi sa­reb­bero di­ven­tati i miei ge­ni­tori adot­tivi, e che erano al se­condo po­sto nella li­sta d’attesa, ri­ce­vet­tero una chia­mata nel bel mezzo della notte che gli di­ceva: «C’è un bam­bino, un ma­schietto, non pre­vi­sto. Lo vo­lete?». Loro ri­spo­sero: «Cer­ta­mente!». Più tardi la mia mamma bio­lo­gica sco­prì che que­sta cop­pia non era lau­reata: la donna non aveva mai fi­nito il col­lege e l’uomo non si era nem­meno di­plo­mato al li­ceo. Al­lora la mia mamma bio­lo­gica si ri­fiutò di fir­mare le ul­time carte per l’adozione. Poi ac­cettò di farlo, mesi dopo, solo quando i miei ge­ni­tori adot­tivi pro­mi­sero for­mal­mente che un giorno io sa­rei an­dato al col­lege. Que­sto è stato l’inizio della mia vita.

Così, come sta­bi­lito, pa­rec­chi anni dopo, nel 1972, an­dai al col­lege. Ma in­ge­nua­mente né scelsi uno troppo co­stoso, e tutti i ri­sparmi dei miei ge­ni­tori fi­ni­rono per pa­garmi l’ammissione e i corsi. Dopo sei mesi non riu­scivo a tro­varci nes­suna vera op­por­tu­nità. Non avevo idea di quello che avrei vo­luto fare della mia vita e non ve­devo come il col­lege po­tesse aiu­tarmi a ca­pirlo. Ep­pure ero là, che spen­devo tutti quei soldi che i miei ge­ni­tori ave­vano messo da parte la­vo­rando per tutta una vita.

Così de­cisi di mol­lare e di avere fi­du­cia, che tutto sa­rebbe an­dato bene lo stesso.

Era molto dif­fi­cile all’epoca, ma guar­dan­domi in­die­tro ri­tengo che sia stata una delle mi­gliori de­ci­sioni che ab­bia mai preso in vita mia.

Nel mo­mento in cui ab­ban­do­nai il col­lege, smisi di se­guire i corsi che non mi in­te­res­sa­vano e co­min­ciai in­vece a en­trare nelle classi che tro­vavo più interessanti.

Non è stato tutto rose e fiori, però. Non avevo più una ca­mera nel dor­mi­to­rio, ed ero co­stretto a dor­mire sul pa­vi­mento delle ca­mere dei miei amici. Gua­da­gnavo soldi ri­por­tando al ven­di­tore le bot­ti­glie di Coca-Cola vuote per avere i cin­que cen­te­simi di de­po­sito e po­termi com­prare da man­giare. Una volta la set­ti­mana, alla do­me­nica sera, cam­mi­navo per sette mi­glia at­tra­verso la città per avere fi­nal­mente un buon pa­sto al tem­pio de­gli Hare Kri­shna: l’unico della set­ti­mana. Ma tutto quel che ho tro­vato se­guendo la mia cu­rio­sità e la mia in­tui­zione è ri­sul­tato es­sere senza prezzo, dopo. Vi fac­cio su­bito un esempio.

Il Reed Col­lege all’epoca of­friva pro­ba­bil­mente i mi­gliori corsi di cal­li­gra­fia del Paese. In tutto il cam­pus ogni po­ster, ogni eti­chetta, ogni car­tello era scritto a mano con cal­li­gra­fie me­ra­vi­gliose. Dato che avevo mol­lato i corsi uf­fi­ciali, de­cisi che avrei se­guito la classe di cal­li­gra­fia per im­pa­rare a scri­vere così. Fu lì che im­pa­rai i ca­rat­teri con e senza le ‘gra­zie’, ca­pii la dif­fe­renza tra gli spazi che di­vi­dono le dif­fe­renti com­bi­na­zioni di let­tere, com­presi che cosa rende grande una stampa ti­po­gra­fica del te­sto. Fu me­ra­vi­glioso, in un modo che la scienza non è in grado di of­frire, per­ché era bello, ma an­che ar­ti­stico, sto­rico, e io né fui as­so­lu­ta­mente affascinato.

Nes­suna di que­ste cose, però, aveva al­cuna spe­ranza di tro­vare un’applicazione pra­tica nella mia vita. Ma poi, dieci anni dopo, quando ci tro­vammo a pro­get­tare il primo Ma­cin­tosh, mi tornò tutto utile. E lo uti­liz­zammo per il Mac. è stato il primo com­pu­ter do­tato di ca­pa­cità ti­po­gra­fi­che evo­lute. Se non avessi la­sciato i corsi uf­fi­ciali e non avessi poi par­te­ci­pato a quel sin­golo corso, il Mac non avrebbe pro­ba­bil­mente mai avuto la pos­si­bi­lità di ge­stire ca­rat­teri dif­fe­renti o spa­ziati in ma­niera pro­por­zio­nale. E dato che Win­dows ha co­piato il Mac, è pro­ba­bile che non ci sa­rebbe stato nes­sun per­so­nal com­pu­ter con quelle ca­pa­cità. Se non avessi mol­lato il col­lege, non sa­rei mai riu­scito a fre­quen­tare quel corso di cal­li­gra­fia e i per­so­nal com­pu­ter po­treb­bero non avere quelle stu­pende ca­pa­cità di ti­po­gra­fia che in­vece hanno. Cer­ta­mente, all’epoca in cui ero al col­lege era im­pos­si­bile per me ‘unire i pun­tini’ guar­dando il fu­turo. Ma è di­ven­tato molto, molto chiaro dieci anni dopo, quando ho po­tuto guar­dare all’indietro.

In­somma, non è pos­si­bile ‘unire i pun­tini’ guar­dando avanti; si può unirli solo dopo, guar­dan­doci all’indietro. Così, bi­so­gna aver sem­pre fi­du­cia che in qual­che modo, nel fu­turo, i pun­tini si po­tranno unire. Bi­so­gna cre­dere in qual­cosa: il no­stro om­be­lico, il de­stino, la vita, il karma, qual­siasi cosa. Per­ché cre­dere che alla fine i pun­tini si uni­ranno ci darà la fi­du­cia ne­ces­sa­ria per se­guire il no­stro cuore an­che quando que­sto ci por­terà lon­tano dalle strade più si­cure e scon­tate, e farà la dif­fe­renza nella no­stra vita. Que­sto ap­proc­cio non mi ha mai la­sciato a piedi e, in­vece, ha sem­pre fatto la dif­fe­renza nella mia vita.

 

LA SE­CONDA STO­RIA: DELL’AMORE E DELLA PERDITA

La mia se­conda sto­ria è a pro­po­sito dell’amore e della perdita

Io sono stato for­tu­nato: ho sco­perto molto pre­sto che cosa amo fare nella mia vita. Steve Woz­niak e io ab­biamo fon­dato Ap­ple nel ga­rage della casa dei miei ge­ni­tori quando avevo ap­pena 20 anni. Ab­biamo la­vo­rato du­ra­mente e in dieci anni Ap­ple è di­ven­tata — da quell’aziendina con due ra­gazzi in un ga­rage che era all’inizio — una com­pa­gnia da 2 mi­liardi di dol­lari con ol­tre 4 mila dipendenti.

Nel 1985 — io avevo ap­pena com­piuto 30 anni e da po­chi mesi ave­vamo rea­liz­zato la no­stra mi­gliore crea­zione, il Ma­cin­tosh — sono stato licenziato.

Come si fa a ve­nir li­cen­ziati dall’azienda che hai creato? Beh, quando Ap­ple era cre­sciuta, ave­vamo as­sunto qual­cuno che ri­te­nevo avesse molto ta­lento e ca­pa­cità per gui­dare l’azienda in­sieme a me, e per il primo anno le cose erano an­date molto bene. Ma poi le no­stre vi­sioni del fu­turo hanno co­min­ciato a di­ver­gere e alla fine ab­biamo avuto uno scon­tro. Quando que­sto suc­cesse, il con­si­glio di am­mi­ni­stra­zione si schierò dalla sua parte. Quindi, a 30 anni io ero fuori. E in ma­niera pla­teale. Quello che era stato il prin­ci­pale scopo della mia vita adulta era sal­tato e io ero com­ple­ta­mente devastato.

Per al­cuni mesi non ho sa­puto dav­vero cosa fare. Mi sen­tivo come se avessi tra­dito la ge­ne­ra­zione di im­pren­di­tori prima di me; come se avessi la­sciato ca­dere la fiac­cola che mi era stata pas­sata. Era stato un fal­li­mento pub­blico e io presi an­che in con­si­de­ra­zione l’ipotesi di scap­pare via dalla Si­li­con Valley.

Ma qual­cosa len­ta­mente co­min­ciò a cre­scere in me: an­cora amavo quello che avevo fatto. L’evolvere de­gli eventi con Ap­ple non aveva cam­biato di un bit que­sta cosa. Ero stato re­spinto, ma ero sem­pre in­na­mo­rato. E per que­sto de­cisi di ri­co­min­ciare da capo.

Non me né ac­corsi al­lora, ma il fatto di es­sere stato li­cen­ziato da Ap­ple era stata la mi­glior cosa che mi po­tesse suc­ce­dere. La pe­san­tezza del suc­cesso era stata rim­piaz­zata dalla leg­ge­rezza di es­sere di nuovo un de­but­tante, senza più cer­tezze su niente. Mi li­berò da­gli im­pe­di­menti, con­sen­ten­domi di en­trare in uno dei pe­riodi più crea­tivi della mia vita.

Du­rante i cin­que anni suc­ces­sivi fon­dai un’azienda chia­mata NeXT e poi un’altra chia­mata Pi­xar, e mi in­na­mo­rai di una donna me­ra­vi­gliosa che sa­rebbe di­ven­tata mia mo­glie. Pi­xar si è ri­ve­lata in grado di creare il primo film in ani­ma­zione di­gi­tale, ‘Toy Story’, e adesso è lo stu­dio di ani­ma­zione di mag­gior suc­cesso al mondo. In un si­gni­fi­ca­tivo sus­se­guirsi de­gli eventi, Ap­ple ha com­prato NeXT, io sono tor­nato ad Ap­ple e la tec­no­lo­gia svi­lup­pata da NeXT è nel cuore dell’attuale ri­na­sci­mento di Ap­ple. Mia mo­glie Lau­rene e io ab­biamo una splen­dida fa­mi­glia. Sono si­curo che niente di tutto que­sto sa­rebbe suc­cesso se non fossi stato li­cen­ziato da Ap­ple. è stata una me­di­cina molto amara, ma ri­tengo che fosse ne­ces­sa­ria per il paziente.

Qual­che volta la vita ti col­pi­sce come un mat­tone in te­sta. Non bi­so­gna per­dere la fede, però. Sono con­vinto che l’unica cosa che mi ha trat­te­nuto dal mol­lare tutto sia stato l’amore per quello che ho fatto. Bi­so­gna tro­vare quel che amiamo. E que­sto vale sia per il no­stro la­voro che per i no­stri af­fetti. Il no­stro la­voro riem­pirà una buona parte della no­stra vita, e l’unico modo per es­sere real­mente sod­di­sfatti è di fare quello che ri­te­niamo es­sere un buon la­voro. E l’unico modo per fare un buon la­voro è amare quello che fac­ciamo. Chi an­cora non l’ha tro­vato, deve con­ti­nuare a cer­care. Non ac­con­ten­tarsi. Con tutto il cuore, sono si­curo che ca­pi­rete quando lo tro­ve­rete. E, come in tutte le grandi sto­rie d’amore, di­ven­terà sem­pre mi­gliore mano a mano che gli anni pas­sano. Per­ciò, bi­so­gna con­ti­nuare a cer­care sino a che non lo si è tro­vato. Senza accontentarsi.

 

LA TERZA STO­RIA: A PRO­PO­SITO DELLA MORTE

La terza sto­ria è a pro­po­sito della morte.

Quando avevo 17 anni lessi una ci­ta­zione che suo­nava più o meno così: «Se vi­vrai ogni giorno come se fosse l’ultimo, un giorno avrai si­cu­ra­mente ra­gione». Mi colpì molto e da al­lora, ne­gli ul­timi 33 anni, mi sono guar­dato ogni mat­tina allo spec­chio chie­den­domi: «Se oggi fosse l’ultimo giorno della mia vita, vor­rei fare quello che sto per fare oggi?». E ogni qual­volta la ri­spo­sta è no per troppi giorni di fila, ca­pi­sco che c’è qual­cosa che deve es­sere cambiato.

Ri­cor­darmi che mo­rirò pre­sto è il più im­por­tante stru­mento che io ab­bia mai in­con­trato per fare le grandi scelte della vita. Per­ché quasi tutte le cose — tutte le aspet­ta­tive di eter­nità, tutto l’orgoglio, tutti i ti­mori di es­sere im­ba­raz­zati o di fal­lire — sem­pli­ce­mente sva­ni­scono di fronte all’idea della morte, la­sciando solo quello che c’è di real­mente im­por­tante. Ri­cor­darsi che dob­biamo mo­rire è il modo mi­gliore che io co­no­sca per evi­tare di ca­dere nella trap­pola di chi pensa che ab­biamo sem­pre qual­cosa da per­dere. Siamo già nudi. Non c’è ra­gione, quindi, per non se­guire il no­stro cuore.

Più o meno un anno fa mi è stato dia­gno­sti­cato un can­cro. Ho fatto la Tac alle sette e mezzo del mat­tino e que­sta ha mo­strato chia­ra­mente un tu­more nel mio pan­creas. Prima non sa­pevo nean­che che cosa fosse un pan­creas. I dot­tori mi dis­sero che si trat­tava di un can­cro che era quasi si­cu­ra­mente di tipo in­cu­ra­bile, che sa­rei morto en­tro i pros­simi tre, al mas­simo sei mesi. Quindi sa­rebbe stato me­glio se avessi messo or­dine nei miei af­fari (che è il co­dice dei dot­tori per dirti di pre­pa­rarti a mo­rire). Que­sto si­gni­fica pre­pa­rarsi a dire ai tuoi fi­gli in po­chi mesi tutto quello che pen­savi di po­ter dire loro in dieci anni. Que­sto si­gni­fica es­sere si­curi che tutto sia stato or­ga­niz­zato in modo tale che per la tua fa­mi­glia sia il più sem­plice pos­si­bile. Que­sto si­gni­fica pre­pa­rarsi a dire i tuoi addio.

Ho vis­suto con il re­sponso di quella dia­gnosi tutto il giorno. La sera tardi è ar­ri­vata la biop­sia, cioè il ri­sul­tato dell’analisi ef­fet­tuata in­fi­lando un en­do­sco­pio giù per la mia gola, at­tra­verso lo sto­maco sino agli in­te­stini, per in­se­rire un ago nel mio pan­creas e cat­tu­rare po­che cel­lule del mio tu­more. Ero sotto ane­ste­sia ma mia mo­glie — che era là — mi ha detto che quando i me­dici hanno vi­sto le cel­lule sotto il mi­cro­sco­pio hanno co­min­ciato a gri­dare, per­ché è sal­tato fuori che si trat­tava di un can­cro al pan­creas molto raro e cu­ra­bile con un in­ter­vento chi­rur­gico. Ho fatto l’intervento chi­rur­gico e adesso, per for­tuna, sto bene.

Que­sta è stata la volta in cui sono an­dato più vi­cino alla morte e spero che sia an­che l’unica per qual­che de­cen­nio. Es­sen­doci pas­sato at­tra­verso, adesso posso par­larvi con un po’ più di co­gni­zione di causa di quando la morte per me era solo un con­cetto astratto.

Nes­suno vuole mo­rire. An­che le per­sone che vo­gliono an­dare in pa­ra­diso, in realtà non vo­gliono mo­rire per an­darci. Ma la morte è la de­sti­na­zione ul­tima che tutti ab­biamo in co­mune. Nes­suno gli è mai sfug­gito. Ed è così come deve es­sere, per­ché la morte è con tutta pro­ba­bi­lità la più grande in­ven­zione della vita. è l’agente di cam­bia­mento della vita. Spazza via il vec­chio per far po­sto al nuovo.

Il no­stro tempo è li­mi­tato, per cui non lo dob­biamo spre­care vi­vendo la vita di qual­cun al­tro. Non fac­cia­moci in­trap­po­lare dai dogmi, che vuol dire vi­vere se­guendo i ri­sul­tati del pen­siero di al­tre per­sone. Non la­sciamo che il ru­more delle opi­nioni al­trui of­fu­schi la no­stra voce in­te­riore. E, cosa più im­por­tante di tutte, dob­biamo avere il co­rag­gio di se­guire il no­stro cuore e la no­stra in­tui­zione. In qual­che modo, essi sanno che cosa vo­gliamo real­mente di­ven­tare. Tutto il re­sto è secondario.

Quando ero un ra­gazzo, c’era un gior­nale in­cre­di­bile che si chia­mava ‘The Whole Earth Ca­ta­log’, pra­ti­ca­mente una delle bib­bie della mia ge­ne­ra­zione. è stata creata da Stewart Brand non molto lon­tano da qui, a Menlo Park, e Stewart ci aveva messo den­tro tutto il suo tocco poe­tico. è stato alla fine de­gli anni Ses­santa, prima dei per­so­nal com­pu­ter e del de­sk­top pu­bli­shing, quando tutto era fatto con mac­chine per scri­vere, for­bici e foto Po­la­roid. è stata una spe­cie di Goo­gle in for­mato car­ta­ceo ta­sca­bile, 35 anni prima che ci fosse Goo­gle: era idea­li­stica e scon­vol­gente, tra­boc­cante di con­cetti chiari e fan­ta­sti­che nozioni.

Stewart e il suo gruppo pub­bli­ca­rono vari nu­meri di ‘The Whole Earth Ca­ta­log’ e quando ar­ri­va­rono alla fine del loro per­corso, pub­bli­ca­rono l’ultimo nu­mero. Era più o meno la metà de­gli anni Set­tanta. Nell’ultima pa­gina di quel nu­mero fi­nale c’era la fo­to­gra­fia di una strada di cam­pa­gna di prima mat­tina, il tipo di strada dove po­tre­ste tro­varvi a fare l’autostop se siete dei tipi ab­ba­stanza av­ven­tu­rosi. Sotto la foto c’erano le pa­role: ‘Stay Hun­gry. Stay Foo­lish’, siate af­fa­mati, siate folli. Era il loro mes­sag­gio di ad­dio. Stay Hun­gry. Stay Foo­lish: io me lo sono sem­pre au­gu­rato per me stesso. E adesso lo au­guro a voi. Stay Hun­gry. Stay Foolish.

TE­STO ORI­GI­NALE DEL DI­SCORSO DI STEVE JOBS, «STAY HUN­GRY. STAY FOOLISH.»

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